Tuesday, July 28, 2009

Reveiw Of Sri lanka

The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka or Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean, lying off the southeastern tip of the Indian subcontinent. The Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separate Sri Lanka from India. The Arabian Sea lies to the west, the Bay of Bengal to the northeast, and the Indian Ocean to the south, Colombo, situated on the western coast, is the largest city and the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. The Administrative capital is Sri Jayewardenepura (Kotte), located about 16 km (about 10 miles) east of Colombo. The total area of Sri Lanka is 65, 610 sq km (25,332 sq.mi). The greatest length, from north to south, is 440 km (270 mi). The greatest width from east to west across the island’s broad southern portion is 220 km (140 mi). Sri Lanka’s coastline extends a length of about 1,300 km (about 830 mi) The elevation of the surrounded plains ranges from sea level to90m (300 ft). The plains are broadest in the north and north central areas. The coastal belt rises about 30 m (about 100 ft) above sea level. Lagoons, sand beaches, sand dunes, and marshes predominate along the coast, although steep rocky cliffs are found in the northeast and southwest. There are mountains in the central hill country that rise up to 6000 feet.

The population of Sri Lanka is nearly 20 million ). Ethnic groups are the Sinhalese, who form the majority (74%) of the population the Sri Lankan Tamils (12.6%), Tamils of recent Indian Origin (5.5%),Sri Lanka Moors(7.7), and other groups like Malays, and Burghers forming the rest. Agriculture is the largest sector of the economy in terms of employment, but manufacturing, especially in the garment industry generates the majority of export earnings. Remittances from Sri Lankan expatriates particularly in the Middle and Gulf have recently become an important foreign exchange contributor. Sri Lanka has a democratic political system, with a directly elected President as head of state as well as a directly elected Parliament, a Prime Minister and a Cabinet of Ministers.

Sri Lanka was inhabited as early as 125,000 years before the Common Era. Sri Lanka has a long recorded history and a rich cultural heritage. History, as recorded in ancient chronicles, goes back to the 6th century before the Common Era, when a group of migrants from India established settlements in the northern plain, also known as dry zone. These settlements, in course of time, evolved into a kingdom.

The most notable event in the early history of the island was the introduction of Buddhism from India in the 3rd century BCE. Buddhism has shaped the history of the country and its cultural heritage. The ancient civilization of Sri Lanka reached its apogee during the Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa periods – that is from early historical times to about 13th century-when an intricate irrigation system was established for agricultural purposes and construction of religious monuments such as pagodas was undertaken. The irrigation technology that developed during this period has few parallels in the ancient world and ancient Sri Lanka is described as a hydraulic society or civilization. After that, due to foreign invasions and ecological problems capitals were shifted from city to city and when the first western power, the Portuguese, arrived in the island in the early 16th century, the capital was located at Kotte, close to Colombo. The western powers were attracted to the island mainly due to its valuable spices particularly, cinnamon and its strategic location. The Portuguese were in occupation of the coastal areas until 1658 when they were replaced by the Dutch. The Dutch were in turn replaced by the British in 1796 but the kingdom in the highlands retained its independence until 1815 when the entire country came under the British rule.

Ceylon as it was named by the new rulers, was considered a model colony by the British who initiated constitutional development in the island as early as 1833 when executive and legislative councils were set up. In 1931 Ceylon achieved internal self government with the introduction of universal adult franchise, the first non white British colony to gain that status. Ceylon became a fully independent nation in1948 and became a member of the Commonwealth. Ceylon joined the United Nations in 1955. Ceylon retained links with the British monarchy until 1972 when a Republican constitution was adopted and the country restored its old name, Sri Lanka. The Constitution of 1978 introduced an executive Presidential form of government with proportional representation. The simmering ethnic tensions in the country took a turn for the worse in 1983 with a terrorist attack in the North and subsequent riots in all parts of the island. The Indo-Lanka accord of 1987 introduced the Provincial Council system for devolution of powers to the outlying areas after which many separatist groups except LTTE joined the mainstream of democratic life. The LTTE, the largest separatist group remained intransigent and many attempts to reach a political settlement failed due to its recalcitrant attitude. In 2002 a ceasefire agreement was signed with Norwegian facilitation and six rounds of talks were held with the LTTE to reach a settlement. The LTEE did not change its attitude and continued it‘s terrorist attacks on civil and military targets

Despite many challenges faced by the country since independence Sri Lanka maintained a democratic and multi party system of government and governments have changed many times through the ballot. The island has also maintained a high level of human development. The election in 2005 brought President Mahinda Rajapaksa to power and an all Party Representative Committee (APRC) was set up to find a solution to an ethnic problem. The recommendations of the APRC were announced in January 2008.

Sri Lanka is a member of the Commonwealth, United Nations, Non Aligned Movement, Group of 77, and South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMTEC) Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-RAC) Asian Regional Forum (ARE) and Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD).

National Flag of Sri Lanka
The first Prime Minister of independent Sri Lanka, D.S.Senanayake, appointed a committee to advice the government on the design of a new national flag. The design approved by the committee in February 1950 and the significance of each symbol of the national flag is as follows:

- The lion in the flag represents the Sinhala race.
- The sword of the lion represents the sovereignty of the country.
- Curly hair on the lion's head indicates religious observance, wisdom and meditation.
- The beard denotes purity of words.
- The handle of the sword highlights the elements of water, fire, air and earth.
- The nose indicates intelligence.
- The two front paws purport to purity in handling wealth.
- The verticle stripe of orange represent the minority Tamil community and the green verticle stripe the minority Muslim community.
- The border round the flag, which is yellow in color, represents other minor races.
- The bo-leaves at the four corners of the flag represent Buddhism and it's influence on the nation. They also stand for the four virtues - Kindness, Friendliness, Happiness and Equanimity.
- The maroon colored portion of the flag manifests the other minor religions.

The Insignia of Sri Lanka
The Insignia of Sri Lanka adopted after the country became a Republic on May 22, 1972 is centred round the lion featured in a circle on a red background. A Lotus in the traditional Pala – pethi motif surrounds the circle. The lotus is the symbol of purity. It rests on a Pun- kalasa (pot of abundance) depicting prosperity. Sheaves of paddy rising from the pun-kalasa encircle the lion. The sun and the moon shown on either side of the pun-kalasa symbolize the eternity of the nation while the sheaves of paddy represents fertility of the land. The Insignia is crowned with the Dhamma Chakra (the wheel of truth). The colours used in the Insignia are the colours of the national flag with a border in blue. The Insignia was gazetted on May 23, 1972. It can only be used for official purposes. It is an offence to use it in private correspondence.
National Anthem
Play ClipStop
National Tree
NA (iron wood) (Botanical Name : Mesua ferrea)
This rain forest tree grows to about 30 m high and indigenous to the lower wet Zone of Sri Lanka. The Features of NA is beautiful bright Red Leaves and finally matured in to a deep green. This Tree was adopted as the National Tree of Sri Lanka on 26 February 1986.

National Flower
The “Nil Mahanel” flower, botanically known as Nympheae stellata was declared the National Flower of Sri Lanka on 26th February 1986.


Wednesday, May 20, 2009

Family Of The President Of Lanka

Mahinda's Familly

Don Alwin Rajapaksa was perhaps the most outstanding democratic politician produced by the Ruhuna region. He vehemently advocated the cause of the Ruhuna peasants throughout his career, while maintaining a quiet demeanour and a steady resolve. The country lost this able and amiable personality on November 7, 1967.

He was born on 5th November 1905 in a hamlet called Madamulana and had his early education at Mandaduva School in Weerakatiya. His father Don David Rajapaksa who held the post of Vidanaracchi in Ihala Valikada Korale, Giruvapattuva in the Hambantota District, sent him for secondary education to Richmond College, Galle. Having completed his school education successfully, he helped his father to manage the family property which consisted of paddy fields and coconut plantations.

He also helped his elder brother D. M. Rajapaksa, who was the State Councillor for Hambantota in attending to affairs of the electorate. Thus he got sufficient experience in the field of politics, but was reluctant to contest the Hambantota seat at the by-election of 1945 on the death of his brother.

Nevertheless, the politically influential people in the area insisted that he should contest the by-election and were finally successful in dragging him into active politics. He won the seat at the by-election and was included in the Committee on Agriculture and Land in the State Council. This gave him a good opportunity to tackle the problem of landlessness of the peasantry of Giruvapattuva. DA adopted a 99-year lease scheme to transfer crown land to landless peasants in five acre plots. For the middle income earners, the land extending from 10 to 50 acres was alienated in the same manner. These measures in fact gave a boost to the paddy and coconut cultivations in Giruva Pattuva.

When the first parliamentary general elections were held in 1947 under the new constitution, the former Hambantota electorate was divided into two, namely, Beliatta and Tissamaharama electorate. Most of Western Giruva Pattuva was included in the Beliatta electorate. D. A. Rajapaksa contested in Beliatta on the UNP ticket and triumphed at the elections.

When S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike was disgruntled over the policies of the United National Party and left it to form the Sri Lanka Freedom Party in 1951, D. A. Rajapaksa who was a close associate of Bandaranaike followed suit. It was the Rajapaksas who gave the maximum strength and support in Ruhuna to Bandaranaike at the general elections of 1952 winning the Beliatta electorate for the SLFP. Later on, in the historic general elections of 1956, which changed the course of our history, D. A. Rajapaksa and the family and their supporters were a source of strength to the MEP coalition. DA was elected MP for Beliatta and in 1959 he was appointed the Minister of Agriculture and Lands.

In fact D. A. Rajapaksa's ups and downs in the political arena are identical to the vicissitudes of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party at the time. At the general election of 1960, when the SLFP was defeated and the UNP formed a government, DA too lost his seat at Beliatta. But when the UNP government was dissolved and the parliamentary elections were held for the second time in July of the same year, DA once again emerged victorious at Beliatta and was a great inspiration to the government led by Sirimavo Bandaranaike.

He was appointed Deputy Chairman of Committees in Parliament and subsequently Deputy Speaker. When the SLFP lost to the Dudley Senanayake-led UNP in the 1965 elections, DA also lost his parliamentary seat.

Rajapaksas were never bent on making money out of politics. On the contrary, they had sacrificed their material wealth for the sake of politics. At the defeat in the 1965 general elections, DA not only lost his political power but was also devoid of material wealth. During this period all his children, Chamal, Mahinda, Basil, Gothabhaya and Dudley were studying in Colombo and he found it difficult to meet their expenses. He sold his vehicle, leased his coconut lands and went through enormous hardships to sustain the family. When he fell seriously ill in November 1967, there wasn't a vehicle nearby to take him to hospital. When transport was arranged belatedly his heart condition had worsened. After admission to hospital this great servant of the people expired. The people of Giruva Pattuva and Ruhuna lost a great leader.

D. A. Rajapaksa was undoubtedly a politician par excellence and a noble human being. He showed genuine goodwill towards the ordinary masses, moved with them and even joined the workers in his paddy fields in ploughing and harvesting paddy. That explains why the memory of his pleasant, unassuming personality has not faded even thirty five years after his demise.
D. A. Rajapaksa, through his exemplary political career and through wise counselling by his beloved wife Palatuwe Dandina Dissanayake, has guided his children over pitfalls and over rough terrain which politicians encounter in pursuing their objectives. It is up to Chamal, Mahinda and Basil, who also have taken to politics, to live up to his expectations and maintain the dignity and decorum which their father had cultivated even while being a politician.

David Rajapaksha Vidanarachchi

He held the post of Vidanarachchi in Ihala Valikada Korale, Giruvapattuva in the Hambantota District.

D.M. Rajapaksa

State councilor for Hambantota District

Alvin Rajapaksa (1905-1967)

He was one of the founder members of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party and was also a Deputy Speaker of Parliament.

Maninda Rajapaksa (1945)

He was appointed as the Leader of the Opposition in 2001.


At The Parliment On 2009.05.19



Mahinda Rajapaksa: A man of the Masses
Mahinda Rajapaksa became Prime Minister of Sri Lanka in April 2004. An attorney-at-law, he was first elected to Parliament from the Beliatta seat in 1970, being the youngest member in the house, aged just 24 years. His father, D. A. Rajapaksa had represented the same seat from 1947 to 1965.

Although many of the past leaders of Sri Lanka’s major political parties have been born outside Colombo, hardly any of them truly had roots in rural Sri Lanka. Mahinda is one of this select few. Born in Weeraketiya, Mahinda schooled in Richmond College, Galle, later moving to Nalanda College and Thurstan College, Colombo, only in order to attend secondary school. Throughout his parliamentary career, except for the period from 1994-2001 when he was a minister, he continued his law practice in Tangalle. despite being the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka , Mahinda’s home is in Sri Lanka’s deep-south, a region to whose emancipation he has dedicated his life.

From the very outset of his career, Mahinda has adopted a centre-left political stance, identifying himself with labour rights and becoming a champion of human rights. His interest in world affairs is manifested from the close interest he has taken in finding a peaceful solution to the Middle East problem within the framework of a sovereign Palestinian state. He is also the President of the Sri Lankan Committee for Solidarity with Palestine for past 25 years.

Throughout his career, Mahinda has given leadership to the cause of uplifting youth, striving to achieve a higher quality of education and training (especially in rural areas) as well as working to reduce youth unemployment. Deeply aware of the violent rebellions of 1971 and 1987, which led to the death of thousands of young people especially in the South, Mahinda has worked tirelessly to prevent yet another such tragedy by striving to strengthen the process of representative democracy and working to reduce social and economic barriers. His remarkable record of human rights activities was honored by the Vishva Bharathi University of Culcutta in India with Professor of Emiratus.

Mahinda proved to be a remarkably successful Minister of Labour, despite suffering a major setback in being unable to bring his brainchild, the Worker’s Charter, into law. The charter sought to establish trade union rights, a Wages Commission, social security, a National Trade Union Training Institute and facilities the adjudication of industrial disputes. He also created the Vocational Training Authority to recognize the rising need of unemployed youth. He was equally dynamic Minister of Fisheries, initiating several important programmes such as housing programme for fishermen to improve the lives and livelihood of fisher-folk, and also strengthen the industrial base of the fisheries industry. Inland fisheries too, benefited from these reforms, with the national harvest almost doubling between 1994 and 2001. Infact he initiated the first ever University for Oceanography known as Sagara Vishwavidyalaya. Establishing a Coastal Guard Unit, a much needed security system for an Island nation was one of his remarkable steps taken as the Minister of Fisheries. In addition to the Portfolio of Fisheries, he also held the Portfolio of the Ports and Shipping for a short period of three months. Within this period he started and gazetted the much needed construction of Hambantota Harbour.

In opposition, Mahinda has been both respected and feared. He stood fearlessly against the autocratic regime of Ranasinghe Premadasa ( 1989-93), bravely opposing totalitarianism and working to restore democracy. His jana gosha, pada yatra, peaceful protest campaigns held the then government to ridicule and precipitated the reforms that followed the ascent of D. B. Wijethunga to the presidency. Mahinda Rajapaksa appointed to the post of the opposition Leader in March 2002.

Loyalty to principle and party has been the hallmark of Mahinda’s political philosophy. Loyalty was, after all, what his father, D. A. Rajapaksa, was especially remembered. When the SLFP’s founder, S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, crossed over from the UNP to the SLFP in 1951, he was amazed to find that all his promised allies had abandoned him, but for D.A.R., who crossed with him.

A devout Buddhist and an ascetic at heart, worldly wealth has never beckoned to Mahinda. He was honored by the most venerable Malwatte Chapter by offering him an honorary title of “Sri Rohana Janaranjana” in the year 2000 which is a very rare occasion for a citizen of Sri Lanka. Even when he was a cabinet minister, he shunned security and lived the simplest of lives with the family and his sons continuing to attend a suburban missionary school. He was never tainted with the stigma or corruption, and is widely recognized for his integrity. Despite his strong “Southern Buddhist” identity, Mahinda has carefully steered away from bigotry and chauvinism. He has put his support firmly behind the on-going peace process, while warning of a need to look beyond addressing mere grievances, to realizing the full aspirations of the people, whether of the South or the North-East. Indeed, he has been one of the few post-Independence politicians who have found it possible to cast petty politics aside when dealing with national issues, such as the rights of minorities.

It has been written of Mahinda Rajapaksa, “If there walks on this earth today a man whose heart beats as one with the workers of the world, that man is this man.” Mahinda is a leader with his finger firmly on the pulse of the people. He is a rebel with a cause and he has the vision to bring prosperity, peace and equity to all the people of Sri Lanka.


Intranational Schools In Colombo And Near By

Western Province

Adventist International School
458/4, Main Street, Negambo

Again Management Service Pvt Ltd
No: 38, Galle Face, Colombo 03.

Alethea International School (Pvt) Ltd.
15, Srimahabodi Road, Dehiwala
271 4849

Alexor International School
38, Maligawatta Road, Maligawatta.
533 1821

Amal International School
152, Dharmarama Road, Off Havelock Road,
Colombo 06.
259 3224

Belvoir College International
20, Dickman Road, Colombo 05.
258 5253

Buddhist Ladies College
229,Dharmapala Mawatha, Colombo 07.
269 5347
Ceylinco Sussex Colege
28, Jambugasmulla Mawatha,
285 2804

Garnet International School
126, Kandy Road, Thihariya
033 228 9402

Gateway International School
6, Rodney Street, Colombo 08.
269 9327

Gospel Asia International School
54, Jayasooriya Mawatha, Kadana
223 7474

Highlands College
333, Highlevel Road,
282 3810

Ikra International School
282/5, Galle Road,
Colombo 03.
257 6181

International Education Development Centre
4/20, Thalakotuwa Gardens,
Colombo 05
251 2275

J.M.C. International School
166/ 32, Arthasadaka Mw,
Kolonnawa Road,
Demategoda, Colombo. 09.
268 9301

Kingston College International
84, The Lasla Veediya,
Colombo 15
252 7111

Korea College of Education
213, Sunethradevi Road,
551 8143

Lanka Montessori Child Development Academy
34A, Rihgeway Place,
Colombo 04.
259 7480

Leeds International School Pvt. Ltd
105, Ather Vee Dies Mawatha,
038 - 223 2349

Leighton Park International School
79/1, Gregory’s Road,
Colombo 07
269 6815

Louvre Institute
229, High level Road,
285 2694

Lyceum International School
3/1, Raymond Road,
282 9745

Metro International School
4A, Ranjan Road,
Off Station Road,
Colombo 06.
451 1164

Mukarrmah International School
151, Kolonnawa Road,
Colombo 09
535 2788

Negombo South International School
197/ 42, Padiripiyo Mawatha,
031 222 2477

OKI International School
43, Old Negambo Road,
293 0016

Regent International College
5, Miriswatta, Mudungoda,

Rose Education Academy
10, Ratnavali Road, Kalubowila
282 6622

Rotary International School
15/3, Samudradevi Mw,
282 0095

Royal Institute
191, Havelock Road,
Colombo 05.
250 8173

Seventh-day Adventist High School
Rilaulla Road, Kadana.
223 7090

Sipnara Institute Pvt Ltd.
84A, Borella Road,
274 4907

Stafford International School
37, Gilfred Chandrawankaya,
Colombo 07.
269 4592

Thaksala Vidyalaya Ederamulla,
229 3037

The British School in Colombo
P.O.Box.72, Kotte.
287 3566

The Viable Resources
140, Galle Road, Mount Lavinia.
273 3590

Visaka Vidyalaya
62/1, Visaka Road,
033 222 2635

Ward International School
15, Vidyalaya Road, Gampaha.
033 222 2017

Wycherly International School
232, Bauddaloka Mawatha,
Colombo 07.
258 8743

North Western Province

Ai- Javadiya Arabic School
Godakurugama, Hipampola,
037 229 3916

Jenanigs International School
Nainamadama, Wennappuwa
031 225 4187

Lexicon College
Colombo Road, Pubudu Mawatha,
037 222 0805

Royal Educational Services (Pvt) Ltd.
3, Thanayama Road, Kurunegala.
037 223 2079

Royal International School
No: 652, Kandy Road,
Meepitiya, Kegalle
035 222 3910

Wayamba Inter National School
28, Thabrew Mawatha,
Negambo Road, Kurunegala
037 222 2141

Sabaragamuwa Province

Ceylinco Sussex College
36,Old Street, Batugedara,
045 223 0314

Hilburn International
Hiburn Estate,

Southern Province

Leeds International School
321, Kumarathunga Mawatha,
Nupe, Matara
041 439 0334

Leeds International School
270, Wackwella Road, Galle
091 545 8111

Uva Province

Al- Barakaha International School
65/17, Welimada Road,
057 222 2760

Central Province

Akal International School
Matale Road, Kadugala,
081 447 3411

Al- Imran International School
638, Peradeniya Road,
081 447 0886

Gateway International School
88, Riverdale Road, Aniwatta,
081 220 0207

High level International School
Danbar Road, Hatton
051 222 2914

Lexicon College
1/84, Dammadassi Mawatha, Kandy
081 221 4097

Netherfield International School Pvt Ltd
Palliya Kotuwa, Batugoda
081 447 2438

Republican International School
14, Bakers Farm, Mahagastota,
Nuwara Eliya
052 223 4334

Richland International school
3/1, Copiwatta Road, Badulla
055 222 2717

Royal Brideten International School
183, Peradeniya Road, Kandy
081 447 0253

Royal English School
33/22, Somasundaram Road,
Mandandawala, Matale
066 446 0242

Vision International School
7/678, Peradeniya Road,
081 238 9910


University of Colombo, Sri Lanka

The oldest University in Sri Lanka, the University of Colombo is a sprawling complex located in the heart of the capital city of Colombo.

In keeping with its motto “Buddhi Sarvathra Bhrajate”, Sanskrit for “Wisdom Enlightens”, the University of Colombo strives to maintain academic excellence in all areas of study. The University of Colombo has 7 Faculties with 41 Academic Departments, a Campus, a School, 6 Institutes and several Centres and Units. Many undergraduate and postgraduate study courses in the fields of Arts, Science, Medicine, Management, Finance, Law, Education, IT, Aesthetic Studies. Molecular Biology etc are conducted by the University. The University also offers several other services, such as library services, career guidance, and services for differently-abled students

Student life is enhanced by a plethora of extra-curricular activities offered on campus. The beautiful playground and the modern gymnasium offer sportsmen and women the opportunity to exploit and develop their abilities to the fullest. The New Arts Theatre is often the arena for spotlighting the dramatic/musical talents of our student population.

Today, the University of Colombo with a proud history of over 115 years continues in its endeavour to meet the challenge of maintaining its position as the “Metropolitan University, Modern and International in Outlook and Character”. The location of the University affords the student population all the advantages of a “metropolitan university” in easy access to international information/resource centres, libraries, theatres, sports complexes etc.

Its central location within the City of Colombo provides easy access to a wide range of cultural, entertainment and business facilities.

The University of Colombo has a multi-cultural multi-ethnic student and staff population, fostering social harmony, cultural diversity, equal opportunity and unity.


Thursday, February 5, 2009



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International Scores


MY Bloglist

Online Kandy

About Nature


Friday, January 16, 2009


Central Province
Districts of Central province

* Kandy District 2,365 km²
* Matale District 1,987 km²
* Nuwara Eliya District 1,228 km²

[edit] Eastern Province

* Ampara District 2,984 km²
* Batticaloa District 2,463 km²
* Trincomalee District 2,616 km²

[edit] North Central Province
Districts of North Central province

* Anuradhapura District 7,128 km²
* Polonnaruwa District 3,403 km²

[edit] Northern Province
Districts of North Eastern province before the de-merger.

* Jaffna District 1,114 km²
* Kilinochchi District 1,171 km²
* Mannar District 1,963 km²
* Mullaitivu District 1,580 km²
* Vavuniya District 1,642 km²

[edit] North Western
Districts of North Western province

* Kurunegala District 4,771 km²
* Puttalam District 2,976 km²

[edit] Sabaragamuwa
Districts of Sabaragamuwa

* Kegalle District 1,663 km²
* Ratnapura District 3,237 km²

[edit] Southern
Districts of Southern province

* Galle District 1,673 km²
* Hambantota District 2,593 km²
* Matara District 1,246 km²

[edit] Uva
Districts of Uva

* Badulla District 2,818 km²
* Moneragala District 7,133 km²

[edit] Western
Districts of Western province

* Colombo District 642 km²
* Gampaha District 1,393 km²
* Kalutara District 1,606 km²




Officially[1], Sri Lanka has nine provinces, seven of which have had provincial councils from the start[1].
Province name ↓ Capital ↓ Area
in km2 ↓ Population
2001 census[2]. ↓
Central Province Kandy 5,674 2,423,966
Eastern Province Trincomalee 9,951 1,310,000
North Central Province Anuradhapura 10,714 1,104,664
Northern Province Jaffna 8,882 1,040,963
North Western Province Kurunegala 7,812 2,169,892
Sabaragamuwa Province Ratnapura 4,902 1,801,331
Southern Province Galle 5,559 2,278,271
Uva Province Badulla 8,488 1,177,358
Western Province Colombo 3,709 5,381,197


colombo end


Colombo has most of the amneties that a modern city has. The majority of the major shopping malls in Sri Lanka are located in the city, of which all are wi-fi enabled. In recent times there's been an outpour of high rise condominiums in the city, mainly due to the very high land prices.

[edit] Landmarks
The Jami Ul Alfar mosque, Pettah is one of the most visited landmarks in Colombo
The Murugan Hindu temple in slave island area

The two World Trade Center towers use to be the most recognized landmarks of the city. Before these towers were completed in 1997, the adjacent Bank of Ceylon tower was the tallest structure and the most prominent landmark of the city. Before the skyscrapers were built it was the Old Parliament Building that stood majestically in the Fort district with the Old Colombo Lighthouse situated close to it. Another important landmark of the city is the Independence Hall at Independence Square in Cinnamon gardens.

Even before the parliament was built some claim that the Jami Ul-Alfar Mosque was recognized as the landmark of Colombo by sailors approaching the port. The mosque is still one of the most visited tourist sites in Colombo.

The Fort district also has the famous Cargills & Millers complex that is protected by a special government law from demolition. This is done mainly to preserve the historic beauty of the Fort area.

The Galle Face Green is the city's largest and most elegant promenade. Lined with palm trees and adjacent to the coast, this mile-long stretch in the heart of the city is a constant beehive of activity. The green is especially busy on Fridays and Saturdays. In the evenings it plays host to families and children playing sports and flying kites, lovers embracing under umbrellas and health enthusiasts taking their daily evening walks. There are numerous small food stalls and a small stretch of beach to get wet. The green was recently given a make over and since then has been even more popular with the local community. The Green also frequently hosts numerous international and local concerts and performances, such as the recently concluded World Drum Festival.

Cannons that were once mounted on the rampart of the old fort of Colombo laid out for observance and prestige at the Green, giving a colonial touch to the city. The famous colonial styled Galle Face Hotel, known as Asia's Emerald on the Green since 1864, is also adjacent to Galle Face Green. The Hotel has played host to distinguished guests including the British Royal Family and other Royal Guests and Celebrities. Apparently after having stayed at the hotel, Princess Alexandra of Denmark had commented that "the peacefulness and generosity encountered at the Galle Face Hotel cannot be matched".[35] Around the corner from Galle Face are prominent coffee bars, chic bars and boutiques.

[edit] Transport
Colombo street in the early 20th century with a tramcar
Main Street in the Fort with the Ghaffoor Building in the background

Colombo has an extensive public transport system based on buses. The bus service is operated both by private and government own Sri Lanka Transport Board (SLTB). Train transport within the city is limited since most trains are meant for transport to and from the city rather than within the city and are often overcrowded. However the Central Bus Stand and Fort Railway Station functions as the islands primary hub for bus and rail transport respectively. Up until the 1970s the city had a trams service, which was discontinued. Other means of transport includes auto rickshaws (commonly called "three wheelers" in Sri Lanka) and taxicabs. Three wheelers are entirely operated by individuals and hardly regulated whilst cab services are run by private companies and are metered.

Construction of the Colombo Metro Rail, a Mass Rapid Transit railway system, similar to that of other advanced Asian cities has begun, this is to control the excessive traffic in the city. The project is carried out by NEB Rapid Infrastructure Projects Pvt.Ltd. an Indian and Singaporean collaboration.[36] [37]

Bandaranaike International Airport serves the city for all International flights while the Ratmalana Airport serves all local flights.


* A1 highway connects Colombo with Kandy.
* A2 highway connects Colombo with Galle.


* Main Line – Colombo to Badulla.
* Southern Line – Colombo to Matara
* Northern Line – Colombo to Kankesanturai deviates from the Main Line at Polgahawela junction - presently operating only up to Vavuniya
* Puttalam Line – Colombo to Puttalam
* Kelani Valley Line (Narrow Gauge) - Colombo to Yatiyantota - presently operating only upto Avissawella
* Mannar Line (Earlier Indo-Lanka Line) Colombo To Talaimannar - Divides from Nothern Line at Medawachchiya junction - Not operational


The Port of Columbo handled 3.75 million twenty-foot equivalent units in 2008, 10.6% up on 2007 (which itself was 9.7% up on 2006), bucking the global economic trend. Of those, 817,000 were local shipments with the rest transhipments. The port is close to its capacity for container handling. An expansion project, the South Harbour project, will increase the port's capacity. (Containerisation International, p.26, January 8 2009)

[edit] Education

Education institutions in Colombo has a long history. Colombo has many of the prominent public schools in the country some of them government owned and others are private. Most of the prominent schools in the city date back to the 1800s when they were established during the British colonial rule,[38] such as the Royal College Colombo (1835). Certain urban schools of Sri Lanka have some religious alignment, this is partly due to the influence of British who established Christian missionary schools,[39][40] these include the Anglican, Bishop's College(1875); the Buddhist, Ananda College (1886); the Muslim, Zahira College (1892); the Catholic, St. Joseph's College (1896). This religious alignment does not effect the curriculum of the school except for the demography of the student population.[39]

Higher education in the city has a long history, it begins with the establishment of the Colombo Medical College (1870), the Colombo Law College (1875), School of Agriculture (1884) and the Government Technical College (1893). The first step in the creation of a University in the island was taken in 1913 with the established of the University College Ceylon in 1921 which prepare students for the external examinations of the University of London, this was followed by the formation of the University of Ceylon, which had a campus in Colombo.[41] Today the University of Colombo and the University of the Visual & Performing Arts are state universities in the city. The Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology also has a metropolitan campus in the center of the city. There are several private higher education institutions within the city.

See also: Education in Sri Lanka

[edit] Architecture

Colombo has wildly varying architecture that span centuries and depict various styles. Many colonial buildings influenced by the Portuguese, Dutch and British exist alongside structures built in Buddhist, Hindu , Islamic, Indian and Contemporary architectural styles. No other place is this more evident in the heart of the city the Fort area. Here one may find new towering skyscrapers as well as historic buildings dating far back as the 1700s.[42][43]

[edit] Colombo Fort

The Portuguese were the first colonist to settle in Colombo, establishing a small trading post they had laid the foundations for a small fort which in time became the largest colonial fort in the island. The Dutch expanded the fort thus creating a well old fortified harbour. This came in to the possession of the British in the late 1700s and by the late 19th century the seeing no threat to the Colombo harbor, began demolishing the ramparts to make way for the development of the city. Although now there is nothing left of the fortifications the area which was once the fort is still refereed to as Fort and the area out side the fort; Pettah or pita-koutuwa in Sinhalese which means outer fort.[42][43]

[edit] Dutch era buildings

There are none of the buildings of the Portuguese era and only a few from the Dutch times. These include the oldest building in the fort area, the Dutch Hospital; the Dutch House which is now the Colombo Dutch Museum and several churches. The President's House (formal the Queen's House) add original been the Dutch governors house and successive British Governors made it their office and residence, however it has under gone much change since the Dutch period. Adjoining the President's House is the Gordon Gardens, now off-limits to the public.[42][43][44]

[edit] British era buildings
The Sirimathipaya Mansion of Sir Ernest de Silva which is now the Prime Minister's Office is an example of architecture of the British era.

Much of the old buildings of the fort area and in other parts of the city date back to the British times, these include governmental, commercial buildings and private houses. Some of the notable government building of British colonial architecture includes; the old Parliament building which is now the Presidential Secretariat, the Republic Building which houses the Ministry of Foreign affairs, but once housed the Ceylon Legislative council, the Treasury building, the old General Post Office an Edwardian style building opposite the President's House, the Prime Minister's Office, the Mathematics department of the University of Colombo (formally the Royal College, Colombo).[45] Notable commercial buildings of the British era include, the Galle Face Hotel, Cargills & Millers complex, Grand Oriental Hotel. Several old clubs of the city gives a glimpse of the British equestrian life style, these include the Orient Club, the 80's Club, the Colombo Cricket Club.[42][43]

[edit] Culture

[edit] Annual cultural events and fairs
Vesak Lanterns, a type of pooja (offering) known as Aloka pooja (offering of light). Followed by the buddhists
The Neoclassical style Colombo National Museum

Colombo's most beautiful festival is the celebration of Lord Buddha's Birth, Enlightenment and Death all falling on the same day.[46] In Sinhala this is known as Vesak. [46] During this festival, much of the city is decorated with lanterns, lights and special displays of light(known as Thoran). The festival falls in mid May and lasts a week when many Sri Lankans visit the city to see the lantern competitions and decorations. During this week people distribute, rice, drinks and various other food items for free in places what is known as Dunsal which means charity place. These Dunsals are popular amongst visitors from the suburbs.

Christmas is another major festival in the city. Although Sri Lanka's Christians make up only just over 7% of the population, Christmas is one of the island's biggest festivals. Most streets and commercial buildings light up from the beginning of December and festive sales begin at all shopping centres and department stores. Caroling and nativity plays are also frequent sights during the season.

[edit] Performing arts

Colombo has several performing arts centers which are popular for their musical and theatrical performances. The most famous performing arts centers are the Lionel Wendt Theater, the Elphinstone and the Tower Hall, all of which have a very rich history and made for western style productions. The Navarangahala also found in the city is the country's first national theatre designed and build for Asiatic and local style musical and theatrical productions.

[edit] Museums and art collections

The National Museum of Colombo, was established on 1 January 1877 during the tenure of the British Colonial Governor Sir William Henry Gregory is situated in cinnamon gardens area. Next to it is the Natural History Museum.[47] The museum houses the crown jewels and throne of the last king of the Kingdom of Kandy, Sri Vikrama Rajasinha.[47] There is also the Colombo Dutch Museum detailing the Dutch colonial history of the country. Colombo does not boast a very big art gallery. There is only a small collection of Sri Lankan masterpieces at the Art Gallery in Green Path.

[edit] Sports
A Test match between Sri Lanka and England at the SCC Ground, Colombo, March 2001.

Undoubtedly the most popular sport in Sri Lanka is cricket. The country emerged as champions of the 1996 Cricket World Cup and became runners up in 2007. The sport is played in parks, playgrounds, beaches and even in the streets of the city. Colombo is also the home for two of the country's international cricket stadiums, Sinhalese Sports Club's cricket stadium and R. Premadasa Stadium (named after late president Premadasa). Rugby is also a popular sport at the club and school level. Colombo has the distinction of being the only city in the world to have 4 cricket Test venues in the past: P. Saravanamuttu Stadium, Sinhalese Sports Club Ground, Colombo Cricket Club Ground and Ranasinghe Premadasa Stadium. The Sugathadasa Stadium situated in the city, is an international standard stadium for athletics, swimming and football, also held the South Asian Games in 1991 and 2006.

The city of Colombo also has its own local football team Colombo FC and the sport is being developed as a part of the FIFA Goal program.

[edit] Media

Almost all major media businesses in Sri Lanka operate from Colombo. The state media has its offices in Bullers Road and carry out regional transmission from there, this includes the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC), formerly known as Radio Ceylon and the Sri Lanka Rupavahini Corporation. The SLBC is the oldest radio station in South Asia. Many of the private broadcasting companies have their offices and transmission stations in or around Colombo.

[edit] Fashion

The city is a popular fashion center in South East Asia today. The industry has evolved to meet modern standards and conducts regular shows to showcase local talent.[48]

[edit] Sister cities


colombo law and crime

Law enforcement & Crime
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka is located in Colombo

The Sri Lanka Police the main law enforcement agency of the island liaise with the municipal council, but is under the control of the Ministry of Defence of the central government.[29] Policing in Colombo and its suburbs falls within the Metropolitan Range headed by the Deputy Inspector General of Police (Metropolitan), this also includes the Colombo Crime Division.[30] As with most Sri Lankan cities, the magistrate court handles felony crimes, the district court handles civil cases.

As in other large cities around the world, Colombo experiences certain levels of street crime and bribery. In addition, in since the 1980s there have been a number of major terrorist attacks.[31][32] The LTTE has been linked to bombings and assassinations in the city.[33] Welikada Prison is situated in Colombo and it is the one of the largest maximum-security prisons in the country.[34]


colombo Economy

Colombo is the hub of Sri Lanka's economic activity, with many major events taking place around the Galle Face Green

The great majority of Sri Lankan corporations have their head offices in Colombo. Some of the industries include chemicals, textiles, glass, cement, leather goods, furniture, and jewelry. In the city center is located South Asia's second tallest building - The World Trade Center. The 40 story Twin Tower complex is the centre of important commercial establishments, situated in the Fort district, the city's nerve center. Right outside the Fort area is Pettah which is derived from the Sinhalese word pita which means out or outside as it is outside the Fort.

Pettah is more crowded than the fort area. It's a place you can buy almost anything you want, Pettah's roads are always packed and pavements are full of small stalls selling from delicious Sharbat to Shirts. Main Street consists mostly of clothes shops and the cross roads, which are literally known as Cross Streets where each of the five streets specializes in a specific business. For example the first cross street mostly comprises electronic goods shops, the second cellular phones and fancy goods. Most of these businesses in Pettah are dominated by Muslim traders. At the end of the main street further away from Fort is the Sea Street, Sri Lanka's Gold market. This mile-long street is full of jewellery shops.

The Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR) encompasses the country's administrative capital Kotte and Colombo. Found within the borders of the CMR is 80% of the country’s industrialization and over 60% of all vehicles plying Sri Lankan roads.


colombo Government and politics

Government and politics
The Neo-baroque style Old Parliament Building, which is now the Presidential Secretariat
The Colombo City Town Hall in Cinnamon Gardens houses the Town Council and other municipal offices

[edit] Local Government

Colombo is a charter city, with a Mayor Council form of government. Colombo's mayor and the council members are elected through local government elections held once in five years. For the past 50 years the city had been ruled by the United National Party (UNP), a right leaning party, whose business friendly policies resonate with the population of Colombo. However the UNP nomination list for the 2006 Municipal elections was rejected,[23] and an Independent Group supported by the UNP won the elections.[24] Uvais Mohamed Imitiyas was subsequently appointed Mayor of Colombo.[25]

The city government provides sewer, road management and waste management services, in case of water, electricity and telephone utility services the council liaises with the water supply and drainage board, the Ceylon electricity board and telephone service providers.

Official Vision and mission

“ Colombo being a model city in Asia, a caring organization looking after interests of citizens and users with an efficient quality service for creation of safe, healthy and wealthy life.[26] ”

“ Organization achieving excellence in providing citizen centered services to the public / customer, optimizing the use of available resources through a competent, motivated and dedicated team.[26] ”

[edit] National capital

Colombo was the capital of the coastal areas controlled by the Portuguese, Dutch and the British from the 1700s to the 1815 when the British gained control of the entire island following the Kandian convention. From then until the 1980s the national capital of the island was Colombo. During the 1980s plans were made to move the administrative capital to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte and thus move all governmental institutions out of Colombo to make way for commercial activities. As a primary step the Parliament was moved to a new complex in Kotte and several ministries and departments were also moved. However the move was never completed. Today many governmental institutions still remain in Colombo. These include the President's House, Presidential Secretariat, Prime Minister's House (Temple Trees), Prime Minister's Office, the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Central Bank of Sri Lanka, important government ministries and departments; such as Finance (Treasury), Defence, Home affairs, Foreign affairs, Public Administration, Justice and the Military headquarters, Naval headquarters (SLNS Ranagala), Air Force headquarters (SLAF Colombo) and Police national and field force headquarters.[27][28]


colombo Demographics

The Seema Malakaya of the Gangarama Temple in the Beira Lake in the Slave Island area, is one of many religious structures in Colombo
The Beira Lake, the Seema Malakaya temple and the gallery island can be seen in lake

Colombo is a multi-ethnic, multi-cultural city. The population of Colombo is a mix of numerous ethnic groups, mainly Sinhalese, Moors and Tamils. There are also small communities of people with Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch, Malay and Indian origins living in the city, as well as numerous European expatriates. Colombo is the most populated city in Sri Lanka, with 642,163 people living within the city limits.[22] According to the census of 2001 the demographics of urban Colombo by ethnicity is as follows.[22]
No ↓ Ethnicity ↓ Population ↓ % Of Total ↓
1 Sinhalese 265,657 41.36
2 Tamils 185,672 28.91
3 Moors 153,299 23.87
4 Indian Tamils 13,968 2.17
5 Malay 11,149 1.73
6 Burghers 5,273 0.82
7 Sri Lankan Chetty 740 0.11
8 Bharatha 471 0.07
9 Other 5,934 0.96
10 Total 642,163 100


colombo geaography and climate

Geography and climate
The Viharamahadevi Park, shown with its famous Buddha statue and fountains and with the Colombo town hall in view, is an example of the abundance of greenery in Colombo

Colombo's geography is a mix of land and water. The city has many canals and, in the heart of the city, the 65-hectare (160-acre) Beira Lake.[18] The lake is one of the most distinctive landmarks of Colombo, and was used for centuries by colonists to defend the city.[18] It remains a popular attraction, hosting regattas,[19] and theatrical events on its shores. The Northern and North-Eastern border of the city of Colombo is formed by the Kelani River, which meets the sea in a part of the city known as the Modera (mōdara in Sinhala) which means river delta.

Colombo’s climate is fairly temperate all throughout the year. From March to April the temperature averages around 31 degrees Celsius (88 degrees Fahrenheit) maximum.[20] The only major change in the Colombo weather occurs during the monsoon seasons from May to August and October to January. This is the time of year where heavy rains can be expected. Colombo sees little relative diurnal range of temperature, although this is more marked in the drier winter months, where minimum temperatures average 22 degrees Celsius (72 degrees Fahrenheit). Rainfall in the city averages around 2,400 millimetres (94 in) a year.[21]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg Temp °C
(°F) 27
(81) 27
(82) 28
(83) 28
(84) 28
(84) 28
(83) 28
(83) 28
(83) 28
(83) 27
(82) 27
(81) 27
(81) 27
Precipitation cm 8 6 11 25 33 19 12 9 15 35 30 15 223


colombo history


As Colombo possesses a natural harbour, it was known to Romans, Arabs, and Chinese traders over 2,000 years ago. Traveller Ibn Batuta who visited the island in the 14th century, referred to it as Kalanpu.[8] Arabian Muslims whose prime interests were trade, began to settle in Colombo around the 8th century CE mostly because the port helped their business and controlled much of the trade between the Sinhalese kingdoms and the outside world. They now comprise the local Sri Lankan Moor community.[7][9]

[edit] The Portuguese Era

Portuguese explorers led by Dom Lourenço de Almeida first arrived in Sri Lanka in 1505. During their initial visit they made a treaty with the King of Kotte Parakramabahu VIII (1484-1508) enabling them to trade in the islands' crop of cinnamon, which lay along the coastal areas of the island, including in Colombo.[10] As part of the treaty, the Portuguese were given full authority over the coast line in exchange for the promise of guarding the coast against invaders. They were also allowed to establish a trading post in Colombo.[10] Within a short time, however, they then expelled the Muslim inhabitants of Colombo and began to build a fort there in 1517.
Colombo's colonial heritage is visible throughout the city, as in the historical Wolvendaal church, established by the Dutch in 1749

The Portuguese soon realized that control of Sri Lanka was necessary for protection of their coastal establishments in India and they began to manipulate the rulers of the Kotte Kingdom in order to gain control of the area. After skilfully exploiting rivalries within the Royal Family, they took control of a large area of the Kingdom and the Sinhalese King Mayadunne established a new Kingdom at Sitawaka, a domain in the Kotte kingdom.[10] Before long he annexed much of the Kotte kingdom and forced the Portuguese to retreat to Colombo, which was repeatedly besieged by Mayadunne and the later Kings of Sitawaka, forcing them to seek reinforcement from their major base in Goa, India. However, following the fall of the Kingdom in 1593, the Portuguese were able to establish complete control over the entire coastal area, with Colombo as their capital.[10][11]
The VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie) logo of Dutch East India Company on the gates of Wolvendaal church

This part of Colombo is still known as Fort and houses the presidential palace and the majority of Colombo's five star hotels. The area immediately outside Fort is known as Pettah (Sinhala piṭa koṭuva, "outer fort") and is a commercial hub.

[edit] The Dutch Era

In 1638 the Dutch signed a treaty with King Rajasinha II of Kandy which assured the king assistance in his war against the Portuguese in exchange for a monopoly of the island's major trade goods. The Portuguese resisted the Dutch and the Kandyans, but were gradually defeated in their strongholds beginning in 1639.[12] The Dutch captured Colombo in 1656 after an epic siege, at the end of which a mere 93 Portuguese survivors were given safe conduct out of the fort. Although the Dutch initially restored the captured area back to the Sinhalese Kings, they later refused to turn them over and gained control over the island's richest cinnamon lands including Colombo which then served as the capital of the Dutch maritime provinces under the control of the Dutch East India Company until 1796.[12][13]
Dutch engraving of Colombo in about 1680

[edit] The British era
The old Legislative Council Building, Colombo fort. Today houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Although the British captured Colombo in 1796, it remained a British military outpost until the Kandyan Kingdom was ceded to them in 1815 and they made Colombo the capital of their newly created crown colony of Ceylon. Unlike the Portuguese and Dutch before them, whose primary use of Colombo was as a military fort, the British began constructing houses and other civilian structures around the fort, giving rise to the current City of Colombo.[7]

Initially, they placed the administration of the city under a "Collector", and John Macdowell of the Madras Service was the first to hold the office. Then, in 1833, the Government Agent of the Western Province was charged with the administration of the city. Centuries of colonial rule had meant a decline of indigenous administration of Colombo, and in 1865 the British conceived a Municipal Council as a means of training the local population in self-governance. The Legislative Council of Ceylon constituted the Colombo Municipal Council in 1865 and the Council met for the first time on the January 16, 1866. At the time, the population of the region was around 80,000.[7]

During the time they were in control of the Colombo, the British were responsible for much of the planning of the present city. In some parts of the city tram car tracks and granite flooring laid during the era are still visible today.[14][15]

[edit] Post Independence
Gallery Island, in the Beira Lake

This era of colonialism ended peacefully in 1948 when Ceylon gained independence from Britain.[16] Due to the tremendous impact this caused on the city's inhabitants and on the country as a whole, the changes that resulted at the end of the colonial period were drastic. An entire new culture took root. Changes in laws and customs, clothing styles, religions and proper names were a significant result of the colonial era.[16] These cultural changes were followed by the strengthening of the island's economy. Even today, the influence of the Portuguese, the Dutch and the British is clearly visible in Colombo’s architecture, names, clothing, food, language and attitudes. Buildings from all three eras stand in their glory as reminders of the turbulent past of Colombo. The city and its people show an interesting mix of European clothing and lifestyles together with local customs.[16] Colombo is by far more modern than most cities in neighbouring countries and continues to be a blossoming metropolis of the East.

Historically, Colombo referred to the area around the Fort and Pettah Market which is famous for the variety of products available as well as the Khan Clock Tower, a local landmark. At present, it refers to the city limits of the Colombo Municipal Council. More often, the name is used for the Conurbation known as Greater Colombo, which encompasses several Municipal councils including Kotte, Dehiwela and Colombo.

Although Colombo lost its status as the capital of Sri Lanka in the 1980s, it continues to be the island's commercial centre. Despite the official capital of Sri Lanka moving to the adjacent Sri Jayawardanapura Kotte, most countries still maintain their diplomatic missions in Colombo.[17]


colombo introduction

Colombo (Sinhala: , pronounced [ˈkoləmbə]; Tamil: கொழும்பு) is the largest city and former administrative capital of Sri Lanka. It is located on the west coast of the island and adjacent to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, the present administrative capital of Sri Lanka. Colombo is a busy and vibrant city with a mixture of modern life and colonial buildings and ruins[2] and a city population of 647,100 at the 2001 Census.[1] The Colombo Metropolitan Region, defined by the districts of Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara, has an estimated population of 5,648,000 as of 2006, and is covering an area of 3,694.20 km².[3][4]

The name "Colombo", first introduced by the Portuguese in 1505, is believed to be derived from the classical Sinhalese name Kolon thota, meaning "port on the river Kelani".[5] It has also been suggested that the name may be derived from the Sinhalese name Kola-amba-thota which means "Harbour with leafy mango trees".[6]

Due to its large harbour and its strategic position along the East-West sea trade routes, Colombo was known to ancient traders 2,000 years ago. However it was only made the capital of the island when Sri Lanka was ceded to the British Empire in 1815,[7] and its status as capital was retained when the nation became independent in 1948. In 1978, when administrative functions were moved to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, Colombo was designated as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka.

Like many cities, Colombo's urban area extends well beyond the boundaries of a single local authority, encompassing other Municipal and Urban Councils. The main city is home to a majority of the Sri Lanka's corporate offices, restaurants and entertainment venues.[6] Famous landmarks in Colombo include the Galle Face Green, the Viharamahadevi Park as well as the National Museum.



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